Who Has Signed The Moon Agreement

3. States Parties may not place objects carrying nuclear weapons or other types of weapons of mass destruction in or around the Moon, or use them on the Moon, or use them. (1) The exploration and use of the Moon is the province of all humanity and is conducted in the interest and interest of all countries, regardless of their degree of economic or scientific development. The interests of present and future generations, as well as the need to promote a higher standard of living and the conditions for economic and social progress and development, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, are duly taken into account. A potential change of game that could give strength to the shadow of the lunar treaty is the possibility that Russia or China decide to throw its diplomatic weight behind the lunar treaty. The status of both countries as non-parties to the lunar treaty contributes to its reputation for treaty failure; But it would be the opposite if one or both nations had at least signed or acceded to the lunar treaty. Such an action would not only revive the reputation of the lunar treaty, but also widen the shadows of customary law, which engulfs both parties and non-parties. The People`s Republic of China and the Russian Federation would thus gain soft power. Given that both nations are already trying to broaden the contractual basis of international space security law by attempting to formally ban weapons in space, formal recognition of the lunar treaty could put pressure on U.S. space policy from two fronts. 1. Any State party can ensure that the activities of other States Parties in the exploration and use of the Moon are compatible with the provisions of this Convention. To this end, all space vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and facilities of the Moon are open to other States Parties.

These States Parties provide for a pre-planned visit so that appropriate consultations can be carried out and that the highest possible precautions can be taken to ensure safety and avoid interference with the normal operation of the facility to be visited. Under this article, each State Party may act on its own behalf or with the full or partial support of another State Party or through appropriate international procedures within the framework of the United Nations and in accordance with the Charter. Now that the United States is following the Artemis program, the question has arisen as to how states will behave by exploring the Moon and using its resources. The signing of the agreements is an important political attempt to codify and apply to the curriculum the fundamental principles of space law. You can hear more about some of the governance issues facing nations that want to explore the Moon in the Go to the Moon and Beyond podcast, see the link below. 3. States Parties agree that it is desirable to exchange scientific and other personnel as far as possible during expeditions to or from facilities on the Moon. Agreements are bilateral agreements and are not binding instruments of international law. But by imposing practices in this region, they could have a considerable influence on any subsequent governance framework for human settlements on Mars and beyond. Given the benefits that may flow from the exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon and other celestial bodies, given the achievements of states in the exploration and use of the Moon and other celestial bodies, the content of the agreements is relatively unchallenged.

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