Reading 2: Chounet-Cambas, L. (2011). Ceasefire negotiations: dilemmas and options for intermediaries. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. On January 15, 1973, U.S. President Richard Nixon ordered a ceasefire for airstrikes in northern Vietnam. The decision was made after the return of Henry Kissinger, Presidential National Security Adviser, with a draft peace proposal from Paris to Washington, D.C. Combat operations continued in southern Vietnam. On January 27, 1973, all parties to the Vietnam War signed a ceasefire, a prelude to the Paris peace agreement. If you were only reading a ceasefire agreement, that should be the case.
It dates back to 2002 and remains the best ceasefire agreement available publicly, with the right detail to anticipate implementation challenges. The full text contains all the annexes, including the role and objectives of the Joint Military Commission – the cornerstone of all frameworks for the implementation of the ceasefire. In this agreement, the Commission includes the parties themselves, who are the main responsible for monitoring and verifying the conflict, which are supported by the third party. A similar common approach was adopted in Nepal, where the United Nations helped the parties implement the 2006 Arms and Armed Forces Management and Surveillance Agreement (AMMAA). In this read-through package, ceasefires are defined as “agreements facilitated by a third party and defining the rules and modalities for ending the fighting of the belligerents.” However, in order to achieve a ceasefire, parties to the conflict, mediators and third parties will, for most years, go through an initial cessation of hostilities agreement. This contains some elements of a ceasefire, but is generally less formal and detailed, as can be seen in the case of the agreement for Syria in spring 2016. More recently, “codes of conduct” have been seen as an additional mechanism for minimizing and regulating the use of force between belligerents. Until 2012, there was only one international precedent in which the parties to the conflict signed a reciprocal code of conduct applicable to their troops, the 25-point code of conduct concluded in 2006 between the Nepalese government and the NPC (Maoist) “, which contained certain elements of a ceasefire. This approach was then used as a model in Myanmar, where international advisors helped the parties agree on common rules of engagement, general principles that guide their relations with the civilian population and a common monitoring framework. A ceasefire (or ceasefire) that has also concluded a ceasefire (the anonymity of “open fire” ) is the temporary end of a war in which each side agrees with the other side to suspend aggressive actions.  Historically, the concept existed at least in medieval times, when it was known as the “peace of God.”  Ceasefires may be declared as a humanitarian gesture provisionally, i.e. before a political agreement, or definitively, i.e.
for the purpose of resolving a conflict.  Ceasefires can be declared as part of a formal treaty, but they have also been described as an informal agreement between opposing forces.  On November 29, 1952, U.S. President-elect elected Dwight D.